parties_elections

Valence Attacks in Multi-Party Elections

How do political parties attack each other in multi-party systems? While voters in multi-party systems respond to attacks on the honesty, integrity, and competence of political actors, it is unclear whether and how political parties use these valence …

Valence Attacks and Vote Choice in Europe

Political parties spend parts of their campaigns criticizing each others’ valence characteristics, such as their honesty, integrity, and competence. The goal with these attacks is to educate voters about other parties’ traits and influence their …

Electoral Contestation: A New Measure and an Empirical Test

The study of electoral competition generally focuses on districts or regions (rather than polities) or a narrow slice of democratic polities. We present a new national-level dataset that registers the performance of the top three parties in elections …